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23 Jul 2021
備受矚目的3種區塊鏈技術
Candice Wan,分析師,Caelus香港辦公室

香港海關於本年7月8日首次偵破一個使用加密貨幣洗錢網絡。該網絡利用多個在香港開設的銀行帳戶和虛擬貨幣交易平台進行匯款及虛擬貨幣交易,處理了約合共12億美元的可疑交易。雖然香港海關未有對此仍在調查中的案件公佈更多破獲的細節,但我們仍可以合理假設區塊鏈技術是其中一個能廣泛應用於識別和阻止洗錢者和金融犯罪的工具。

區塊鏈正在引起全世界各行各業的關注。簡單來說,區塊鏈是一個可以被複製並散佈在整個互聯網上的電子交易分類帳。每個存於區塊鏈網絡中的區塊都包含了多筆交易,而任何的新交易都會被紀錄並添加至每位參於者各自的帳本中。這種去中心化的特性使得該區塊鏈網絡不易甚至不可能竄改、破解或欺騙資料系統。區塊鏈技術促進信息紀錄變得透明和自動化,這有助於實現網路安全、透明度、降低管理時間和成本,甚至可以如上文提及用於搗截洗錢等不道德行為。

毋庸置疑,區塊鏈技術可應用於無數的領域,僅舉幾個例子就包括記錄房地產的所有權、駕駛執照、銀行匯款、教育、醫療記錄、出生、死亡和結婚證等重要證明。以下是三個引起我們注意的新興區塊鏈技術應用:

一. 去中心化的金融科技
金融科技(Fintech)一直是全球快速增長的行業,但若然深入了解這些金融科技公司就會發現,他們所應用的根本技術坦白說只屬於非常初級的科技。這是因為銀行和金融服務行業很大程度上是建基於信任之上,而信任需要長時間的建立,所以相對於其他行業較難出現顛覆性的改變;數碼銀行緩慢的發展就是最好的佐證。而整合了區塊鏈技術的金融科技超級應用程式正成為新興的商業模式,用以彌補革命性技術的不足。

Fintech一般涵蓋區塊鏈、人工智能、雲計算和大數據的技術,並應用於支付、清算和結算、存款、借貸和融資、貿易融資、保險和投資管理等領域。區塊鏈技術的應用把經紀、交易所或銀行等傳統的中心化金融系統轉變成去中心化金融(Decentralized Finance,DeFi),即利用智能合約自動執行經所有參與者認同並簽署的合約條款編碼, 進行近乎即時的網上交易,同時減少人為錯誤、時間、成本和費用的產生。

二. 自我主權身份
自我主權身份(Self-Sovereign Identity,SSI)是一種用於發佈和管理數位身份的身份系統,而個人或企業在其中擁有管控其帳戶和驗證個人信息的唯一所有權。透過區塊鏈和記帳的技術,個人憑證和數位資產變成可驗證、於全球解析和可保護私隱。這些信息將儲存於數位錢包,讓我們通過自己的電子設備安全地對其進行管理,並隨時、隨地向任何人展示。

SSI身份可用於個人身分辨識以及簡化任何涉及信任授權的流程,例如福利的索賠、銀行賬戶、貸款、保險、醫療保健服務等。舉例來說,銀行在受理新客戶前需進行對客戶背景了解和審查(KYC)和盡職調查,客戶就可以向銀行提供自己可驗證的憑證,從而節省文件驗證的時間和成本,以及避免丟失原始文件的風險。

三. 可再生能源
ESG作為自2020年後最盛行的投資趨勢之一,企業們越加重視能源消耗和節約(特別是數位貨幣挖礦)及二氧化碳排放權交易。可再生能源公司正在引領綠色科技的進步,其中區塊鏈技術也被廣泛應用於識別、追踪和認證可再生能源的生產和消費的來源和節點,實時保證供應和消耗的能源是100%可再生的。

分類帳被儲存於區塊鏈後就不能竄改或逆轉,能在能源使用數據、邊際成本、燃料價格和能源合規監管上提供可靠和實時的更新。這個特性不但簡化運營商之間的交易和提高交易透明度,最終也鼓勵了可再生能源的使用。

區塊鏈技術已經應用於大量領域,但要完全利用此科技的所有潛力仍需要進一步的深入研究。其中的例子就是區塊鏈的技術仍未適合應用於公共事務上,例如投票系統的網域— 因為電子投票系統未有充分的保護可以避免受到網絡攻擊或黑客入侵,亦尚未研究出能確保選票被正確點算的方法。如同許多的科技,我們預計會有更多公司在可預見的未來利用區塊鏈的技術帶來更廣泛的改變。


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本文作者為香港證監會認可持牌人,本文中所包含的特定材料並未曾亦不會構成直接或間接涉及作者的任何補償或收益。作者個人亦沒持有上述相關股份。

本欄發表的評論、新聞、研究、分析、價格及其他資料,只能視作一般市場資訊,只作參考之用,並不構成投資建議。凱路斯資產管理有限公司對於資料錯誤、不準確或遺漏無須承擔責任,並且不保證其中所載信息、文字、圖表、連接或其他項目準確或完整。本公司對於資料所引致的任何特殊、間接、連帶或相應損害,包括但不限於損失、收入損失或利潤損失不應負有法律責任。